NERD ALERT: How you can set up a baby’s health and defences for life...
There has been a huge leap forward in research over the last ten years on how important a healthy gut is to the overall healthy functionality of your body and immune system. Crucially, we have learnt that the very earliest formation (from in the womb until stabilisation around 2-3yrs old) matters and has potentially lifelong consequences for the health of a baby.
In fact disruptions to this (leading to low diversity and imbalances in the gut bacteria (known as the microbiome - which also contains fungi and viruses in the mix)) have been linked to mood and neurological issues, allergies/intolerances/other autoimmune conditions, obesity and a propensity towards a number of diseases in adulthood. All factors which are rapidly on the rise in young kids today.
‘Various epidemiological studies have established a clear correlation between factors that disrupt the gut microbiota during childhood and immune and metabolic disorders later in life’ (1)
That’s why if you’re thinking of having a baby, are pregnant or have a very young child you need to read this.
So: how do we set this up for the healthiest start?
For the two minute “loo break” click here, for a bit more meat read on!
Research around the gut and its role remains ongoing, however, it had previously been assumed that the all important gut microbiota (the bacterial mix in our guts) starts to build at birth.
The latest research is suggesting it starts even earlier than this: in the womb. Other research is even suggesting that other microbiota in our bodies - specifically in our reproductive system - play a role in implantation and risks around preterm birth with imbalances causing inflammation (click here to read more on this and why it can pose such a problem). (1).
It has even been linked to issues with brain development with Mayer et al noting in the Journal of Neuroscience that alterations in the gut microbiome could play a role in human brain diseases including ASD, anxiety, depression and chronic pain. (2)
So - you can see that making sure you don't have imbalances and have a microbiome which is as diverse as possible is crucial.
Unfortunately modern life doesn’t make it that easy….
So what can we do?
Our knowledge of the microbiome is very much still evolving and we definitely don't have all the answers yet, but, there was a phenomenal study released last year by the American Society for Microbiology looking at the earliest microbiome formation in babies, how crucial it is for future health, how it develops and what can knock it off. If you want to geek out hard, check out the link here, if not - here is what you need to know:
Key important points to consider:
How a baby’s own gut is built
What does a ‘healthy’ gut microbiome look like?
When does a baby’s gut development stabilise?
What are the factors that can influence this?
How can this cause allergy and autoimmune conditions?
What can we do ourselves to help it be as healthy as possible?
The earliest stages matter:
There have been a number of studies released that have gone against the long held view that a baby’s gut starts to build at birth. What we are seeing now (given more sophisticated research techniques) is more and more evidence that it starts while the baby is in utero (1). Meaning that the earliest pioneers of your baby’s own microbiota come from the mother.
Translation: while you’re pregnant, it makes sense to ensure that your own gut health is in tip top condition - click here to learn more on how you can optimise this.
We also know that the baby’s gut makeup changes a lot in the early states and generally speaking development only starts to stabilise around 2-3yrs old - which means: from conception to that point, you have a window of opportunity to potentially set a baby up for good health in the future if you’re mindful of how this develops.
So, what does a ‘healthy gut microbiota’ look like?
This is a very good question - for now the science is still learning and evolving here, we definitely do not have all the answers yet. However, we do know that everyone seems to have a different mix, but, generally diversity (more is better than less) and ensuring there are no big imbalances (particularly of pathogenic ie. disease causing bacteria) appears to be crucial.
In terms of individual strains - it appears that Bifidobacteria is an important one to have with abnormal levels have been associated with disease in early life. They have also been noted to have protective and anti inflammatory properties. (1) This is why they are used so much in many store bought Probiotics (click here to learn why you should be a bit careful with these).
So, what influences how a baby’s gut gets built?
We have learnt that a number of factors shape how a baby’s gut is built at the earliest stages:
Mode of delivery (C-Section or Vaginal)
Type of feeding (breastfeeding or formula)
Fetal age at delivery (pre or full term)
Method of birth: Personally, this is something I wish I had known before (my baby was born by C-Section), but, what the research shows is that when it comes to building a solid gut microbiota how a baby is born matters. Most of us cannot control this of course, and often a C-Section birth is lifesaving and necessary for both mother and child, but, it is important to be aware, particularly as there are other things you can potentially do if you have no choice but to have a C-Section (click here for more on this).
why does this matter?
During a normal vaginal birth the baby picks up the bacteria present in the birth canal - this is the first major exposure to bacteria and this tends to make up the first colony within the gut. A C-Section baby, doesn’t get this and instead the initial bacterial colony comes from the mother’s skin microbiome, the hospital environment and the Colostrum (first milk). This has some consequences:
Here is what the research says when we compare the gut of a baby who is born via C-Section vs one who has been born vaginally:
Lower complexity of bacteria in C-Section babies (remember we want diversity) until around a year old.
Lower initial numbers of what we think are ‘good’ bacteria (Bifidobacteria and Bacteroides)
Lower Cytokines (what is a Cytokine? Small proteins that are important in cell signalling ie. the affect the behaviour of cells around them)
So, from a gut perspective, its not ideal to be a C-Section baby. However, the good news is that these differences do seem to diminish over time, however, non negligible differences have been seen in kids as old as 7yrs old so it does take time. Further, the research has linked (causality has yet to be proved) C-Sections with higher propensity towards autoimmune conditions, asthma, Type 1 Diabetes, allergies and obesity. (1) So it appears that the early colonization really does matter...
Bottom Line: often we can’t help how a baby is born and often C-Sections are lifesaving so do not worry if thats how your baby was born - the good news is there is a lot else that can be done to compensate: read on!
Type of Feeding: There are many reasons why the ‘Breast is Best’ mantra really is true (click here for the real story on that). It’s tricky as it is not easy for everyone (I for one had a really hard time the whole way along), but, this is a subject that is well researched and from the perspective of building a healthy gut the science says it really does matter. Here is what it says when it comes to the gut and its development:
Breastfed infants have higher Bifidobacteria (which appear protective)
Breastmilk contains promicrobial and antimicrobial agents (what does that mean? Well it appears to be a natural way to promote balance)
Appears to contain IgAs (what is this? A type of antibody - interestingly enough low levels are associated with heightened risk of infections, allergies and autoimmune diseases).
Contains natural prebiotics or Oligossacharides (what is that? Click here to learn a lot more but essentially this ‘feeds’ the bacteria in the gut)
Different levels of SCFA (again click here for more on why that matters)
Antibiotic use: Antibiotics of course kill bacteria - including those in the gut. There are two things to consider here. Prescription antibiotics (which often you cant help) and over disinfecting and antibiotics in food (which we have more control over). Overuse in the early stages have been linked to metabolic disorders in later life, obesity and allergies which is obviously becoming a big issue globally. Of course, it is also something that is hard to control (as if you have a very serious infection it is absolutely the way to go). However, it pays to avoid it wherever you possibly can. Even seemingly small things like avoiding fish, meat, milk products that are not organic is wise as they are likely to have been treated with antibiotics helps. It is also worth being less ‘hyper-clean’ with overuse of antibiotic hand-gel/sanitiser etc (ex the early days of a baby’s life).
‘considerable attention has been drawn to investigating the role of early-life antibiotic therapy in being an important driver for subsequent development of metabolic diseases. Several analyses have shown that altering the gut microbiota with antibiotics during early life will have long-lasting metabolic consequences, including adiposity (excess fat tissue), weight gain, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and liver disease.’ (1)
Translation: if you throw the natural balance off even short term at the outset of development of the microbiota it can have long lasting consequences.
What’s interesting is that countries where there is the heaviest use of disinfectants, antibiotic and over use of prescription drugs as well as processed food and heavy pesticide use are typically the countries that are seeing the most rampant rise in things like autism and allergies - Evrensel and Ceylon (amongst many others) make a link between this and the gut microbe:
‘Effects of growing up in a more hygienic environment and changes in diet are mainly observed in developed countries, where the incidence of allergic diseases and autism is increasing....The diversity of the gut microbiota can change under the influence of drugs, diet and stress’. (3)
Other risk factors for the development of gut microbiota include preterm birth (which is why premature babies are sometimes given very targeted clinical doses of probiotics) and maternal diet (high BMI has been linked to a whole host of health issues for a baby - including issues developing a healthy gut microbiota).
Weaning: there have been surprisingly few studies around this. However, given the fact a baby’s gut is still in a state of heavy flux at this stage it makes sense to safeguard this as much as possible. Organic, diverse whole foods without preservatives are the smart way to go. Meat stock (click here for more) is also recommended by one of the pioneers of gut health Dr Natasha Campbell-McBride. Food naturally rich in prebiotics (click here for more) is another smart choice. Click here for much more on this.
Overall - there is a decent chunk of evidence that how our guts are formed at the very earliest stage really does matter with lasting consequences for long term health and susceptibility to disease. Particularly when it comes to issues that are seemingly on the rise today: allergies, autoimmune conditions, mood disorders, obesity. Awareness is the first step and the good news is there are lots of things you can do to ensure that you put yourself and your baby on the best possible path for optimum gut health.
1) MILANI C, DURANTI S, VENTURA M: The First Microbial Colonizers of the Human Gut: Composition, Activities, and Health Implications of the Infant Gut Microbiota: Mirobiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: 2017 Dec: 81 (4)
2) MAYER E, KNIGHT R, MAZMANIAN SK, CRYAN J, TILLISCH K: Gut Microbes and the Brain: Paradigm Shift in Neuroscience: The Journal of Neuroscience. November 12 2014: 34(46)
3) EVRENSEL A, CEYLAN ME: The Gut-Brain Axis: The missing link in depression. Clinical Psycopharmacology and Neuroscience: 2015; 13 (3): 239-244
This article is for informational purposes only. This article is not, nor is it intended to be, a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment and should never be relied upon for specific medical advice. The information on this website has been developed following years of personal research and from referenced and sourced medical research. Before making any changes we strongly recommend you consult a healthcare professional before you begin.